African Diaspora/African American

Art History

Araeen, Rasheed. “Modernity, Modernism, and Africa’s Place in the History of Art of our Age.” Third Text 19, no 4 (2005): 411–417.

Araeen, Rasheed. “How I Discovered My Oriental Soul in the Wilderness of the West.” Third Text 18 (1992): 85–102.

Araeen, Rasheed. “From Primitivism to Ethnic Arts.” Third Text 1 (1987): 6–25.

Ater, Renee. Remaking Race and History: The Art of Meta Warrick Fuller. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

Bailey, David A. and Richard J. Powell, eds. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance. London: Hayward Gallery the Institute of International Visual Arts, 1997.

Barson, Tanya and Gorschlüter, Peter, eds. Afro Modern: Journeys through the Black Atlantic. Liverpool: Tate Liverpool in association with Tate Publishing, 2010.

Barton, Craig Evan, ed. Sites of Memory: Perspectives on Architecture and Race. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.

Berger, Maurice. For All the World to See: Visual Culture and the Struggle for Civil Rights. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

Bernier, Celeste-Marie. African American Visual Arts: From Slavery to the Present. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Bernier, Celeste-Marie and Hannah Durkin, eds. Visualizing Slavery: Art Across the African Diaspora. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2016.

Bindman, David, et. al. The Image of the Black in Western Art. Vols. 1–4. New ed. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 2010.

Blier, Suzanne Preston. “Imaging Otherness in Ivory: African Portrayals of the Portuguese ca. 1492.” The Art Bulletin 75, no. 3 (1993): 375–396.

Birt, Rodger. C. “For the Record: James VanDerZee, Marcus Garvey, and the UNIA Photographs.” International Review of African American Art 8, no. 4 (1989): 39–48.

Boime, Albert. The Art of Exclusion: Representing Blacks in the Nineteenth-Century.  Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1990.

Boime, Albert. “Henry Ossawa Tanner’s Subversion of Genre.” Art Bulletin 75, no. 3 (September 1993): 415-442.


Bowles, John P. Adrian Piper: Race, Gender, and Embodiment. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

Braddock, Alan. “Eakins, Race, and Ethnographic Ambivalence.” Winterthur Portfolio 33, no. 2/3 (1998): 135–61.

Buick, Kirsten Pai. Child of the Fire: Mary Edmonia Lewis and the Problem of Art History’s Black and Indian Subject. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

Byrd, Dana E. “‘Motive Power’: Punkahs and Performance in the Antebellum South.” Buildings and Landscapes 23, no. 1 (2016): 29–51.

Cahan, Susan. Mounting Frustration: The Art Museum in the Age of Black Power. Durham: Duke University Press, 2016.

Calo, Mary Ann. Distinction and Denial: Race, Nation, and the Critical Construction of the African American Artist, 1920–40. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007.

Campt, Tina. Image Matters: Archive, Photography, and the African Diaspora in Europe. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.

Casid, Jill. Sowing Empire: Landscape and Colonization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.

Cassel Oliver, Valerie, ed. Benjamin Patterson: Born in the State of Flux/us. Houston: Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, 2011.

Chambers, Eddie. Black Artists in British Art: A History since the 1950s. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014.

Chambers, Eddie. Things Done Change: The Cultural Politics of Recent Black Artists in Britain. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi Editions, 2012.

Chambers, Eddie. Run Through the Jungle: Selected Writings by Eddie Chambers. London, Invia: 1999.

Childs, Adrienne. “Visual Arts.” Oxford Bibliographies Online: DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780190280024-0027

Childs, Adrienne and Susan H. Libby, eds. Blacks and Blackness in European Art of the Long Nineteenth Century. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014.

Clarke, Cheryl. “After Mecca”: Women Poets and the Black Arts Movement. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press, 2004.

Copeland, Huey. Bound to Appear: Art, Slavery, and the Site of Blackness in Multicultural America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Copeland, Huey. “In the Wake of the Negress.” In Modern Women: Women Artists at the Museum of Modern Art, edited by Cornelia Butler and Alexandra Schwartz, 480–496. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2010.

Copeland, Huey. “Figures and Grounds.” Artforum (April 2009): 142–147.

Copeland, Huey. “Truth to Power.” Artforum (October 2009): 59–60.

Copeland, Huey and Krista Thompson. “Perpetual Returns: New World Slavery and the Matter of the Visual.” Representations 113 (2011): 1–15.

Craft, Catherine, ed. Melvin Edwards: Five Decades. Dallas: Nasher Sculpture Center, 2015.

Dabakis, Melissa. “Ain’t I A Woman? Anne Whitney, Edmonia Lewis, and the Iconography of Emancipation.” In Seeing High and Low: Representing Social Conflict in American Visual Culture, edited by Patricia Johnston, 84–102. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.

Dabydeen, David. Hogarth’s Blacks: Images of Blacks in Eighteenth-Century English Art. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987.

Davis, John. “Eastman Johnson’s Negro Life at the South and Urban Slavery in Washington, D.C.” Art Bulletin 80, no. 1 (1998): 67–92.

Deliss, Clementine, ed. Seven Stories about Modern Art in Africa. Paris: Flammarion, 1996.

Delmez, Kathryn E., ed. Carrie Mae Weems: Three Decades of Photography and Video. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Dickerman, Leah. Jacob Lawrence: The Migration Series. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2015.

Dominguez-Torres, Mónica. “Pearl Fishing in the Caribbean: Early Images of Slavery and Forced Migration in the Americas.” In African Diaspora and the Cultures of Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States, edited by Persephone Braham. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2015.

Douglass, Frederick. “Pictures and Progress” (December 3, 1861).” In Frederick Douglass Papers, vol. 3, edited by John W. Blassingame, 452–73. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.

Duganne, Erica. The Self in Black and White: Race and Subjectivity in Postwar American Photography. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2010.

Du Bois, W.E.B. “Criteria of Negro Art.” Crisis 32 (1926).

Ellison, Ralph. Shadow and Act. New York: Vintage, 1953.

Ellison, Ralph. “The Art of Romare Bearden.” The Massachusetts Review 18, no. 4 (1977): 673–680.

English, Darby. 1971: A Year in the Life of Color. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

English, Darby. How to See A Work of Art in Total Darkness. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2007.

Enwezor, Okwui. The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa, 1945–1995. Munich and New York: Prestel, 2001.

Enwezor, Okwui, and Chika Okeke-Agulu, eds. Contemporary African Art since 1980. Bologna: Damiani, 2009.

Erickson, Peter and Clark Hulse, eds. Early Modern Visual Culture: Representation, Race, and Empire in Renaissance England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Farrell, Laurie Ann. Looking Both Ways: Art of the Contemporary African Diaspora. New York: Museum for African Art, 2003.

Ferguson, Leland. Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650–1800. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Fine, Ruth, ed. Procession: The Art of Norman Lewis. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.

Flam, Jack and Miriam Deutch, eds. Primitivism and Twentieth-Century Art: A Documentary History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Fleetwood, Nicole. Troubling Vision: Performance, Visuality, and Blackness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Foster, Hal. “The Primitive Unconscious of Modern Art.” October 34 (Autumn 1985): 45–70.

Francis, Jacqueline. “Commentary: Writing African American Art History.” American Art 17, no. 1 (2003): 2–10.

Fusco, Coco. “The Other History of Intercultural Performance.” The Drama Review 38, no. 1 (1994): 143–167.

Gibson, Ann. Abstract Expressionism: Other Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

Gikandi, Simon. “Picasso, Africa, and the Schemata of Difference.” Modernism/Modernity 10, no. 3 (2003): 455–480.

Gikandi, Simon. “Cruciality and the Frog’s Perspective.” Art and Text 32 (Autumn 1989): 106–117.

Globus, Doro, ed. Fred Wilson: A Critical Reader. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAM Publications, 2011.

Gold, Susanna W. “A Measured Freedom: National Unity and Racial Containment in Winslow Homer’s The Cotton Pickers, 1876.” The Mississippi Quarterly 55, no. 2 (March 2002): 163-183.

Golden, Thelma. “Post-Black.” In Freestyle, edited by Christine Y. Kim and Franklin Sirmans. New York: Studio Museum in Harlem, 2001.

Golden, Thelma, ed. Bob Thompson. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1998.

Goldsby, Jacqueline. A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Gottschild, Brenda Dixon. Digging the Africanist Presence in American Performance. Westport: Prager, 1998.

González, Jennifer. Subject to Display: Reframing Race in Contemporary Installation Art. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Grant, Bradford. C. “Accommodation and Resistance: The Built Environment and the African American Experience.” In Reconstructing Architecture: Critical Discourses and Social Practices. Edited by T..A. Dutton and L.H. Mann, 202–233. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Green, Andy. “Remembering Slavery in Birmingham: Sculpture, Paintings, and Installations.” Slavery & Abolition 29, no. 2 (2008): 189–201.

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo. “Still Thinking about Olympia’s Maid.” Art Bulletin 97, no. 4 (2015): 430–451.

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo. Enduring Truths: Sojourner’s Shadow and Substance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo. Extremities: Painting Empire in Post-Revolutionary France. London: Yale University Press, 2002.

Hall, Stuart. “Black Diaspora Artists in Britain: Three ‘Moments’ in Post-War History.” History Workshop Journal 61, no. 1 (2006): 1–24.

Hall, Stuart. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage, 1997.

Harney, Elizabeth. In Senghor’s Shadow: Art, Politics, and the Avant-Garde in Senegal, 1960–1995. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Harris, Michael D. Colored Pictures: Race and Visual Representation. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Harris, Michael D. “From Double Consciousness to Double Vision.” African Arts 27, no. 2 (1994): 44–53.

Hatt, Michael. “Making a Man Out of Him: Masculinity and the Black Body in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Sculpture.”  Oxford Journal of Arts 15, no. 1 (1992): 21-35.

Herzog, Melanie. Elizabeth Catlett: In the Image of the People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

Holloway, Camara Dia. Portraiture and the Harlem Renaissance: The Photographs of James L. Allen. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1999.

Jewsiewicki, Bogumil. Cheri Samba: The Hybridity of Art. Westmount, Que.: Galérie Amrad African Art Publications, 1995.

Jones, Kellie. Now Dig This! Art and Black Los Angeles, 1960–1980. New York: DelMonico Books/Prestel, 2011.

Jones, Kellie. Eye Minded: Living and Writing Contemporary Art. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

Julien, Isaac. Expeditions. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Museum, 2012.

Kaplan, Paul. “The Calenberg Altarpiece: Black African Christians in Renaissance Germany.” In Germany and the Black Diaspora: Points of Contact, 1250–1914. Edited by Mischa Honeck, Martin Klimke, and Anne Kuhlmann. New York: Berghann, 2013.

Katz, Wendy Jean. “Robert S. Duncanson: City and Hinterland.” In Regionalism and Reform: Art and Class Formation in Antebellum Cincinnati, 86–136. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2002.

Kent, Rachel and Robert Hobbs. Yinka Shonibare: MBE. Munich and New York: Prestel, 2008.

Kirschke, Amy. Art in Crisis: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Struggle for African American Identity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Koverman, Jill Beute, ed. I made this Jar –: The Life and Works of the Enslaved African American Potter, Dave. Columbia: McKissick Museum, University of South Carolina, 1998.

Kriz, Kay Dian. Slavery, Sugar, and the Culture of Refinement: Picturing the British West Indies, 1700–1840. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.

Kroiz, Lauren. Creative Composites: Modernism, Race, and the Stieglitz Circle. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Langa, Helen. “Two Antilynching Art Exhibitions: Politicized Viewpoints, Racial Perspectives, Gendered Constraints.” American Art 13, no. 1 (1999): 10–39.

Leighten, Patricia. “The White Peril and l’Art nègre: Picasso, Primitivism, and Anti-colonialism.” Art Bulletin 72, no. 4 (1990): 609–630.

Leininger-Miller, Theresa. New Negro Artists in Paris: African American Artists in the City of Light, 1922–1934. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Lewis, Sarah, ed. “Vision and Justice.” Special edition of Aperture 223 (Summer 2016).

Lokko, Lesley Naa Norle. White Papers, Black Marks; Architecture, Race, Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Low, Gail and Marion Wynne-Davies, eds. A Black British Canon? New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Lugo-Ortiz, Agnes and Angela Rosenthal, eds. Slave Portraiture in the Atlantic World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Mariott, David. Haunted Life: Visual Culture and Black Modernity. Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007.

Marley, Anna O., ed. Henry Ossawa Tanner: Modern Spirit. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 2014.

McEvilley, Thomas. “Fusion: Hot or Cold?” In Fusion: West African Artists at the Venice Biennale. New York: Museum for African Art, 1993.

McInnis, Maurie D. Slaves Waiting for Sale: Abolitionist Art and the American Slave Trade. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

McGrath, Elizabeth and Jean Michel Massing, eds. The Slave in European Art: From Renaissance Trophy to Abolitionist Emblem. London: The Warburg Institute, 2012.

McQueen, Steve. Steve McQueen. London: Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1999.

Mercer, Kobena. “Art History and the Dialogics of Diaspora.” Small Axe 16, no. 2 (2012): 213–227.

Mercer, Kobena. Welcome to the Jungle: New Positions in Black Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Mercer, Kobena. Travel & See: Black Diaspora Art Practices since the 1980s. Durham: Duke University Press, 2016.

Mercer, Kobena. “Reading Racial Fetishism: The Photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe.” In Visual Culture: The Reader, edited by Jessica Evans and Stuart Hall, 435–448. London: Sage Publications, 1999.

Mercer, Kobena, ed. Exiles, Diasporas, and Strangers. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas, ed. Diaspora and Visual Culture: Representing Africans and Jews. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Molineux, Catherine. Faces of Perfect Ebony: Encountering Atlantic Slavery in Imperial Britain. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Murray, Freeman Henry Morris. Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture: A Study in Interpretation. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1916.

Natanson, Nicholas. The Black Image in The New Deal: the Politics of FSA Photography. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992.

Neal, Larry. “Any Day Now: Black Art and Black Liberation.” Ebony 24, no. 10 (August 1969).

Nelson, Charmaine. The Color of Stone: Sculpting the Black Female Subject in Nineteenth-Century America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Nelson, Charmaine. Slavery, Geography, and Empire in Nineteenth-Century Marine Landscapes of Montreal and Jamaica. London: Routledge, 2016.

Nelson, Steven. From Cameroon to Paris: Mousgoum Architecture in and out of Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

Nelson, Steven. “Turning Green into Black or How I Learned to Live with the Canon.” In Making Art History: A Changing Discipline and Its Institutions, edited by Elizabeth Mansfield, 54–66. London, Routledge, 2007.

Nelson, Steven. “Diaspora and Contemporary Art: Multiple Practices, Multiple Worldviews.” In Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945, edited by Amelia Jones 296–316. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.

Nelson, Steven. “Transgressive Transcendence in the Photographs of Rotimi Fani-Kayode.” Art Journal 64, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 4–19.

Nesbett, Peter T. and Michelle Dubois, eds. Over the Line: The Art and Life of Jacob Lawrence. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

Njami, Simon, et. al. Africa Remix. London: Hayward Gallery, 2005.

Nuttall, Sarah, ed. African and Diaspora Aesthetics. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Oguibe, Olu. “Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series.” Nka: Journal of Contemporary African Art 3 (Fall/Winter 1995): 71–75.

Ogundiran, Akinwumi and Toyin Falola, eds. Archaeology of Atlantic Africa and the African Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Okeke-Agulu, Chika. Postcolonial Modernism: Art and Decolonization in Twentieth-Century Nigeria. Durham: Duke University Press, 2015.

Okeke-Agulu, Chika. “Contemporary Art and the #Blacklivesmatter Movement.” Nka: Journal of Contemporary African Art 36 (2015): 4–5.

Okeke-Agulu, Chika. “Conversation with Zarina Bhimji.” Art Journal 69, no. 4 (Winter 2010): 66–75.

O’Meally, Robert G. Romare Bearden: A Black Odyssey. New York: DC Moore Gallery, 2007.

Onigiri, Amy Abugo. Spectacular Blackness: The Cultural Politics of the Black Power Movement and the Search for a Black Aesthetic. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009.

Park, Marlene.  “Lynching and Anti-Lynching: Art and Politics in the 1930s.”  In The Social and the Real: Political Art of the 1930s in the Western Hemisphere, edited by Alejandro Anreus, Diana L. Linden, and Jonathan Weinberg, page numbers. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.

Parks, Gordon. A Choice of Weapons. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

Pascale, Mark. Martin Puryear: Multiple Dimensions. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2015.

Patton, Sharon. African American Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Peabody,Rebecca.  Consuming Stories: Kara Walker and the Imagining of American Race, University of California Press, 2016.

Pindell, Howardena. The Heart of the Question: The Writings and Paintings of Howardena Pindell. New York: Midmarch Arts Press, 1997.

Pinder, Kymberly. “Missus Kara E. Walker: Emancipated, and On Tour.” Art Bulletin 90, no. 4 (December 2008): 640–48.

Piper, Adrian, Out of Order, Out of Sight. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1996.

Piper, Adrian. “The Triple Negation of Colored Women Artists.” In Next Generation: Southern Black Aesthetic. Winston-Salem, NC: Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art, 1990.

Powell, Richard J. Black Art: A Cultural History. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2003.

Powell, Richard J. Cutting A Figure: Fashioning Black Portraiture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Powell, Richard J. “Cinque: Anti-Slavery Portraiture and Patronage in Jacksonian America.” American Art 11, no. 3 (1997): 48–73.

Powell, Richard J. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Powell, Richard J. “In My Family of Primitiveness and Tradition: William H. Johnson’s ‘Jesus and the Three Marys.’” American Art 5, no. 4 (Autumn 1991): 20–33.

Powell, Richard J., David A. Bailey, and Petrine Archer-Straw. Back to Black: Art, Cinema, and the Racial Imaginary. London: Whitechapel Art Gallery, 2005.

Prown, Jonathan. “The Furniture of Thomas Day: A Reevaluation.” Winterthur Portfolio 33, no. 4 (1998): 215–229.

Quilley, Geoff and Kay Dian Kriz, eds. An Economy of Colour: Visual Culture and the Atlantic World, 1660–1830. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003.

Raiford, Leigh. Imprisoned in a Luminous Glare: Photography and the African American Freedom Struggle. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

Rogers, Molly. Delia’s Tears: Race, Science, and Photography in Nineteenth-Century America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

Rosen, Mark. “Pietro Tacca’s Quattro Mori and the Conditions of Slavery in Early Seicento Tuscany.” The Art Bulletin 97, no. 1 (2015): 34–57.

Rothkopf, Scott. Glenn Ligon: America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

Saar, Betye, James Christen Steward, et. al. Betye Saar: Extending the Frozen Moment. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Savage, Kirk. Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Savage, Kirk, ed. The Civil War in Art and American Memory. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 2016.

Schwain, Kristin. “‘A school-master to lead men to Christ’: Henry Ossawa Tanner’s Biblical Paintings and Religious Practice.” In Signs of Grace: Religion and American Art in the Gilded Age. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008.

Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois. Represent: 200 Years of African American Art in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2014.

Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois. “Landscapes of Labor: Race, Religion, and Rhode Island in the Painting of Edward Mitchell Bannister.” In Postbellum, Pre-Harlem: African American Literature and Culture, 1877–1919, edited by B. McCaskill and C. Gebhard. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois. “‘Moses Williams, Cutter of Profiles’: Silhouettes and African-American Identity in the Early Republic.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 49, no. 1 (2005): 22–39.

Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois and Emily K. Schubert. Portraits of a People: Picturing African Americans in the Nineteenth Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006.

Shaw, Gwendolyn DuBois. Seeing the Unspeakable: The Art of Kara Walker. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Sheehen, Tanya. “A Time and a Place: Rethinking Race in American Art History,”  The Blackwell Companion to American Art (2015).

Simon, Joan, ed. Lorna Simpson: Paris: Jeu de Paume, 2013.

Sims, Lowery Stokes. “Artists, Folk and Trained: An African-American Perspective.” In When the Stars Begin to Fall: Imagination and the American South, edited by Thomas J. Lax, 22–30. New York: The Studio Museum in Harlem, 2014.

Sims, Lowery Stokes. Challenge of the Modern, African-American Artists, 1925–1945. New York: The Studio Museum in Harlem, 2003.

Sims, Lowery Stokes. “Subject/Subjectifity and Agency in the Art of African Americans.” Art Bulletin 76 (1994): 587–590.

Smalls, James. The Homoerotic Photography of Carl Van Vechten. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006.

Smith, Cherise. “Re-member the Audience: Adrian Piper’s Mythic Being Advertisements.” Art Journal 66, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 47–58.

Smith, Shawn Michelle. Photography on the Color Line: W.E.B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Smith, Shawn Michelle. “Augustus Washington and the Civil Contract of Photography.” In At the Edge of Sight: Photography and the Unseen, 165–192. Durham: Duke University Press, 2013.

Smith, Shawn Michelle. American Archives: Gender, Race, and Class in Visual Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Spicer, Jonathan, ed. Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe. Baltimore: The Walters Art Museum, 2012.

Stallings, L. H. Mutha’ is Half a Word: Intersections of Folklore, Vernacular, Myth, and Queerness in Black Female Culture. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2007.

Strother, Z. S. “Invention and Reinvention in the Traditional Arts.” African Arts 28, no. 2 (Spring 1995): 24–33, 90.

Tate, Greg. “Nobody Loves a Genius Child: Jean Michel Basquiat, Flyboy in the Buttermilk.” In Flyboy in the Buttermilk, 231–244. New York: Fireside, 1992.

Thompson, Krista. “A Sidelong Glance: The Practice of African Diaspora Art History in the United States.” Art Journal 70, no. 3 (2011): 7–31.

Thompson, Krista. “The Evidence of Things Not Photographed: Slavery and Historical Memory in the British West Indies.” Representations 113 (2011): 39–71.

Thompson, Krista. Shine: The Visual Economy of Light in African Diasporic Practice. Durham: Duke University Press, 2015.

Thompson, Krista. “Preoccupied with Haiti: The Dream of Diaspora in African American Art, 1915–1942.” American Art 21, no. 3 (Fall 2007): 74–97.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Aesthetic of the Cool: Afro-Atlantic Art and Music. New York: Prestel, 2011.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Face of the Gods : Art and Altars of Africa and the African Americas. New York : Munich: Museum for African Art ; Prestel, 1993.

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Random House, 1983.

Thompson, Robert Farris and Joseph Cornet. The Four Moments of the Sun: Kongo Art in Two Worlds. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1981.

Tobin, Beth Fowkes. Picturing Imperial Power: Colonial Subjects in Eighteenth-Century British Painting. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999.

Tobin, Beth Fowkes and Raymond G. Dobard, eds. Hidden in Plain View: the Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. “A Quilt Unlike Any Other: Rediscovering the Work of Harriet Powers.” In Writing Women’s History: A Tribute to Anne Firor Scott, edited by Elizabeth Anne Payne, 82–116. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2011.

Upton, Dell. “White and Black Landscapes in Eighteenth-Century Virginia.” In Material Life in America, 1600–1860, edited by Robert Blair St-George. 357–368. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1988.

Vlach, John M. The Planter’s Prospect: Privilege and Slavery in Plantation Paintings. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Vlach, John M. Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Vlach, John M. By the Work of their Hands: Studies in Afro-American Folklife. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1991.

Vogel, Susan, ed. Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory. New York: The Center for African Art, 1988.

Wagner, Anne. “Warhol Paints History, or Race in America.” Representations 55 (Summer 1996): 98–119.

Wallace, Maurice and Shawn Smith, eds. Pictures and Progress: Early Photography and the Making of African American Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.

Wallis, Brian. “Black Bodies, White Science: Louis Agassiz’s Slave Daguerreotypes.” American Art 9, no. 2 (1995): 39–61.

Widener, Daniel. Black Arts West: Culture and Struggle in Postwar Los Angeles. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.

Wilkie, Laurie. Creating Freedom: Material Culture and African American Identity at Oakley Plantation, Louisiana, 1840–1950. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2000.

Willis, Deborah. Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers from 1840 to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

Willis, Deborah and Barbara Krauthamer. Envisioning Emancipation: Black Americans and the End of Slavery. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013.

Willis, Deborah. Posing Beauty: African American Images from the 1890s to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009.

Willis, Deborah, ed. Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography. New York: The New Press, 1994.

Wilson, Fred. Mining the Museum: An Installation by Fred Wilson. Edited by Lisa G. Corrin. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994.

Wilson, Judith. “Down to the Crossroads with Alison Saar.” Third Text 10 (Spring 1990): 24–44.

Wilson, Judith. “Lifting the Veil: Henry O. Tanner’s The Banjo Lesson and The Thankful Poor.” In Mary Ann Calo, ed., Critical Issues in American Art: A Book of Readings, 199–219. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.

Wilson, Judith. “Getting Down to Get Over: Romare Bearden’s Use of Pornography and the Problem of the Black Female Body in Afro-U.S. Art.” In Black Popular Culture, edited by G. Dent and M. Wallace, 112–122. Seattle: Bay Press, 1992.

Wilson, Mabel. Negro Building: Black Americans in the World of Fairs and Museums. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Wolfskill, Phoebe. “Caricature and the New Negro in the Work of Archibald J. Motley, Jr. and Palmer Hayden.” Art Bulletin (September 2009): 343–365.

Wood, Marcus. The Horrible Gift of Freedom: Atlantic Slavery and the Representation of Emancipation. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010.

Wood, Marcus. Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England and America, 1780–1865. New York: Routledge, 2000.

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Cultural and Literary Theory

Alexander, Elizabeth. “‘Can you be BLACK and Look at This?’ Reading the Rodney King Video(s).” In The Black Interior. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.

Anderson, Jennifer. Mahogany: The Costs of Luxury in Early America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Baker, Jr., Houston, Manthia Diawara, and Ruth Lindeborg, eds. Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader. Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press, 1996.

Baraka, Amiri. Blues People: Negro Music in White America. New York: Morrow, 1963.

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Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “The Uncompleted Argument: Du Bois and the Illusion of Race.” In Race Writing and Difference, edited by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

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Challis, Debbie. The Archaeology of Race: The Eugenic Ideas of Francis Galton and Flinders Petrie. London: Bloomsbury, 2013.

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Coleman, Arica L. That the Blood Stay Pure: African Americans, Native Americans, and the Predicament of Race and Identity in Virginia. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2013.

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hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.

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Williams, Patricia. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

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Additional Theoretical Resources

Bernstein, Robin. Racial Innocence: Performing American Childhood from Slavery to Civil Rights. New York: NYU Press, 2011.

Best, Stephen. The Fugitive’s Properties: Law and the Poetics of Possession. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Byrd, Rudolph P., Johnnetta Betsch Cole, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. I am Your Sister: Collected and Unpublished Writings of Audre Lorde. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Carby, Hazel V. “White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood.” In Black British Cultural Studies: A Reader, edited by Houston Baker et. al., 61–86. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Césaire, Aimé, and Robin D. G Kelley. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000.

Césaire, Aimé, Clayton Eshleman, and Annette Smith. Notebook of a Return to the Native Land. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

Copeland, Huey and Jared Sexton. “Raw Life: An Introduction” Qui Parle 13, no. 2 (2003): 53–62.

Cunard, Nancy, ed. Negro Anthology. New York: Negro University Press, 1934.

Dayan, Colin. The Law is a White Dog: How Legal Rituals Make and Unmake Persons. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.

Elmer, Jonathan. On Lingering and Being Last: Race and Sovereignty in the New World. New York: Fordham University Press, 2008.

Gordon, Avery. Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Twin Cities: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.

Gordon, Lewis. Bad Faith and Antiblack Racism. Amherst: Humanity Books, 1995.

Gordon, Lewis. Her Majesty’s Other Children: Sketches of Racism from a Neocolonial Age. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997.

Goldberg, David Theo. The Racial State. New York: Wiley, 2002.

Hall, Stuart. “The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power.” In Formations of Modernity, edited by Stuart Hall and Bram Gieben. UK: Open University Press, 1993.

Hall, Stuart, Charles Critcher, Tony Jefferson, John Clarke, and Brian Roberts. Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillian, 1978.

Hall, Stuart and Paul du Gay, eds. Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage Publications, 1996.

Harney, Stefano, and Fred Moten. The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning & Black Study. New York: Autonomedia, 2013.

Holland, Sharon Patricia. The Erotic Life of Racism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.

hooks, bell. Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: H. Holt, 1995.

hooks, bell. Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press, 1990.

James, C. L. R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the
San Domingo Revolution. New York: Vintage Books, 1963.

Keeling, Kara. The Witch’s Flight: The Cinematic, The Black Femme, and the Image of Common Sense. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.

Lewis, Robin Coste. Voyage of the Sable Venus and Other Poems. New York: Knopf, 2015.

Locke, Alain. The New Negro. New York: Atheneum, 1977 [orig. 1925].

Mathur, Saloni, ed. The Migrant’s Time: Rethinking Art History and Diaspora. Williamstown: Sterling and Francis Clark Art Institute, 2011.

McKittrick, Katherine. Sylvia Wynter: On Being Human as Praxis. Durham: Duke University Press, 2015.

Mehta, Uday. “Liberal Strategies of Exclusion.” Politics and Society 18, no. 4 (1990): 427–454.

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. The Right to Look: A Counterhistory of Visuality. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

Moten, Fred. “Knowledge of Freedom.” CR: The New Centennial Review, 4:2 (Fall 2004): 269–310.

Moten, Fred.“The Case of Blackness.” Criticism 50:2 (Spring 2008): 177–218.

Moten, Fred.“Black Ops.” PMLA, 123: 5 (October 2008): 1743–1747.

Muhammad, Khalil Gibran. The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010.

Muñoz, José E. Disidentifications: Queers of Color and the Performance of Politics. Twin Cities: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

Muñoz, José E. Cruising Utopia. The Here and There of Queer Futurity. New York: NYU Press, 2009.

Ngai, Sianne. “Black Venus, Blond Venus.” In Bad Modernisms, edited by Douglas Moa and Rebecca L. Walkowitz, 145–178. Durham: Duke Univeristy Press, 2006.

Nyong’o, Tavia. The Amalgamation Waltz, Race, Performance, and the Ruses of Memory. Twin Cities: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.

Nyong’o, Tavia. “Racial Kitsch and Black Performance.” The Yale Journal of Criticism 15:2 (2002): 371–393

Tinsley, Omise’eke Natasha. “Black Atlantic, Queer Atlantic: Queer Imaginings of the Middle Passage.” GLQ 14, no. 2 (2008): 191–215.

Williams, Patricia. “On Being the Object of Property.” Signs 14, no. 1 (1988): 5–25.

Wynter, Sylvia. “The Ceremony Must Be Found: After Humanism,” boundary 2 12/13, no. 1–3 (1984): 19–70.

Wynter, Sylvia. “‘No Humans Involved’: An open letter to my colleagues.” Forum N.H.I. Knowledge for the 21st Century, 1, no. 1 (1994): 42–73.

Wynter, Sylvia. “1492: A New World View.” In Race, Discourse, and the Origin of the Americas: A New World View, edited by Vera Lawrence Hyatt, Rex Nettleford. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian, 1995.

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